Preservation Piedmont: Cultural Landscape Lessons – 3

Sammons Family Cemetery, Albemarle County, Virginia
Sammons Family Cemetery, Albemarle County, Virginia

This past May I had the opportunity to participate in “Preservation Week” produced by Preservation Piedmont in Charlottesville, Albemarle County, Virginia. I wrote about a group of historic Black settlements that I was able to visit while I was there. One in particular, the Jesse Sammons house, built c.1850, had just been placed on Preservation Virginia’s Most Endangered list. Its existence, along with the family cemetery that contains Mr. & Mrs. Sammons’ graves, was threatened by a proposed highway project. A contract resource survey that focused primarily on architectural significance had dismissed the property as “…has no significant association with any event or person important to our nation’s history and does one appear to have the ability to yield important information. This architectural resource is recommended as individually not eligible for National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) under Criteria A, B. C, or D”. The survey made no mention of nearly twenty eight acres of land once owned by the Sammons family and containing the house and cemetery.

Jesse Sammons House, Albemarle County, Virginia
Jesse Sammons House, Albemarle County, Virginia

Sammons family descendants and Charlottesville area historic preservationists, including Preservation Piedmont, were successful in requesting an eligibility review from the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places. The Keeper sent a representative to inspect the site first hand. Approximately two weeks ago the Keeper issued a written letter stating that the Sammons property is eligible under Criterion B (association with the lives of persons significant in our past) and Criterion D (for its potential to yield important information related to the physical extent of the cemetery). The Keeper’s full letter of determination may be accessed at the following link: http://s3.amazonaws.com/cville/cm%2Fmutlimedia%2F20130827-Keeper-Determination.pdf

The Sammons case provides several lessons for this phase of preservation:  1) All of America’s significant history has not been documented.   2) America’s significant landscape architectural and architectural history is not exclusive to classical design styles.  3) Collective efforts of a group of Americans may be just as significant and heroic as a that of an individual.  4) A significant amount of American, and African American, history lies in the cultural landscape.  These are resources composed of embedded layers of environment, land, building and culture.

Preservation Piedmont -2

Jesse Scott Sammons House, Charlottesville, Virginia
Jesse Scott Sammons House, Charlottesville, Virginia

Last Friday I had the honor and pleasure to present the keynote talk launching “Preservation Week” produced by Preservation Piedmont in Charlottesville, Albemarle County, Virginia.  The theme of this year’s week long event is “Threatened Sites & Communities.”  I urge as many people as possible to attend the events this week.

http://ppiedmont.squarespace.com

Though I only saw a sample of historic resources in Charlottesville I am still convinced that this is a very timely, and nationally significant, theme.  I believe that the following are very significant, and permanent, elements of the traditional colonial, revolutionary, and evolving historic American legacies of this region:

Ruthville, Charles County, Virginia
Ruthville, Charles County, Virginia

The establishment of African American citizenship through land ownership.  I saw several properties that were owned by African Americans before and after emancipation.  Though they did not become incorporated entities, they were what I identified as “rural villages” in my “Black Settlements In AmericaTM” research.  African Americans, often extended families, purchased adjacent properties and donated land for a church, cemetery, and school that they and their neighbors could attend. The settlements formed social, cultural, political, and economic networks to meet the needs of residents. Since most African Americans were only allowed to lease or rent property after the Civil War, the owner occupied settlements were the exception, as opposed to the rule.  The traces, or remnants, of these are among the most rare and valuable of current American historic and cultural resources.  The Sammons, Carr and Evans properties are prime examples in the Charlottesville area.

 

Daughters of Zion African American Cemetery, Charlottesville, Virginia
Daughters of Zion African American Cemetery, Charlottesville, Virginia

Several African American burial grounds and cemeteries included graves of locally and nationally prominent persons.  I was impressed by all of them because current Charlottesville parks, schools, and other civic facilities are named for a significant number of these people of color.  For example,  the Daughters of Zion Cemetery was created in 1873 by the local women’s mutual aid society because African Americans were usually not allowed to be buried in the adjacent Oakwood Cemetery.   Burials in Daughters of Zion include Mr. Benjamin Tonsler (1854-1917) who learned to read and write when it was illegal to teach African Americans to do so.  Mr. Tonsler went on to attend Hampton Institute, befriend Booker T. Washington, and become the principal of the local Jefferson Graded School.

 

 

C.B. Holt “Rock House”, Charlottesville, Virginia
C.B. Holt “Rock House”, Charlottesville, Virginia

I saw structures and neighborhoods built by African Americans.  Mr. C.B. Holt (1872-1950) was an African American carpenter who lived in the “Vinegar Hill” neighborhood, and built the “rock house” in 1926.  It is one of just a few stone houses in Charlottesville. And, though Mr. Holt was “…only a carpenter”,  the proportion, order and detail are comparable to many architect designed arts and crafts style residences. Professor Daniel Bluestone (University of Virginia) has done an exemplary job researching, interpreting and restoring the C.B. Holt “Rock House.”

These stories and achievements are not simply African American history, they are integral parts of American history that will not disappear even if attempts are made to ignore them.  I thank Preservation Piedmont for their efforts and the City of Charlottesville and the Jefferson School for hosting me.

 

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